About Shortnotes

These are summary notes of topics, and they are presented in bulleted form. They have been written in-house by Swript Professional Services, and are tailored to students, teachers, and anyone who has an interest in the covered subjects. They are not meant to replace any course textbook or recommended curricula readings. These notes are, at the minimum, meant to serve as revision notes, and for Swript Professional Services, these notes serve as a foundational substratum of knowledge for complex advanced subjects and topic that are published in the website. This minimizes the need for repetitive re-definition of terms or re-explanation of concepts or mode of operations of devices, or mode of actions of drugs. As more subjects are published, this series will continue growing.

​In this Education Series, one topic is covered in a single webpage, and this makes it easy for students to do their revisions, or for anyone to familiarize himself or herself with the basics of the topic. Likewise, the webpage can have embedded hyperlinks to other pages that define or elaborate on a given concept.

To anyone who needs assistance, be it academic or professional help, feel free to contact us via email, or visit the Order page and make (or request) assistance or academic support.


The subjects that have been covered so far are listed below.

Computer Studies
Electricity and Electronics
Business Studies
Humanities and Philosophy
Health Sciences

Summary notes are being added continuously so as build an online repository that can be referenced to, and shared online. All these notes are the original works of Swript Professional Services, and it is PROHIBITED to copy and use them without consent or making appropriate citations and references. To reach the author of these lecture notes, kindly send an email to this address.

Continuous addition of notes will build an online repository of notes. To better organize this repository, a table of contents will be added to each series of Shortnotes that qualifies as a subject, and hyperlinked topics will open as webpages. This table of contents will not follow the conventional format of curricula-based school textbooks, as most of the topics will be written to be as self-contained as possible.

An online glossary of commonly used abbreviation and notation has been added as a standalone webpage. It is to be updated continuosly as the website is being populated with posts.


The notes that have been published so far are shown in the grid below.

  • Parallel and Series Circuits
    In a series circuit, the current is constant around the circuit and total resistance is the sum of individual resistances. Each parallel path in a parallel circuit is called a branch, and each branch has its own current, though all branches have the same voltage.
  • Electrical Power, Work, and the Electron Volt
    Electricity providers charge for work done using their electricity, and this is charged as Kilowatt-hours (kWh), which makes it a key unit of energy rating. Electric shock can cause pain and severe burns if one touches a high-voltage wire. The human body has a resistance value range of 10-50 kΩ. At 9 milliAmpere (mA) for an adult male and 6mA for an adult female, the electric shock causes significant discomfort to cause one to release the live wire. Planet earth can be used as a conductor. The circuit path where the earth is used to connect the load to the power source is called the earth return.
  • Electric Potential, Resistance, Conductance, and Types of Currents
    When EMF is applied to create a current flow, there is an opposing force to this current flow in the conductor. This opposing force is called resistance (R), and its unit of measurement is Ohm (Ω). Ampere is the number of electrons flowing orderly through a point in a circuit in one second. The number of these electrons are measured as Coulomb. Any material with free electrons that can conduct current is called a conductor. Any material without free electrons cannot conduct current, and is thus called a non-conductor or insulator.
  • Planetary Electrons and Orbital Shells
    Each atom has orbital shell(s) depending on the number of electrons, and the further the electron is from the nucleus, the less strongly it is bound to the nucleus. This means that the electron in the outermost orbital shell is least strongly bound to the nucleus as compared to the electron in the innermost orbital shell. The electron that is tightly bound to the nucleus is called the valence or bound electron, while the loosely bound electron in the outermost orbit that can move away from the nucleus is called the free electron. To move this free electron, there is need for an energy input to overcome the resistance of the nucleus to allow for this electron to exit its orbital shell. This energy is best described as the electron-moving force.
  • Introduction to Electricity
    The only particle that moves when an electric circuit is completed is the electron. In the atom, there are 3 fundamental particles – proton, electron, and neutron. The proton and neutron give the atom its mass. The proton and electron are collectively designated as electrical particles because each is surrounded by an invisible field of force that reacts with adjacent matter in either an electrically negative or positive manner. This field gives the particle its characteristic electrical charge. This invisible field of force around the electrical particle is called the electrostatic field.
  • Introduction to Computer Hardware
    Computer needs two components to be functional – the hardware and the software. Obviously, the electric power must be provided via the Power Supply Unit (PSU) that powers the motherboard and all internal hardware, as well as external peripherals, including the output hardware (e.g monitor and printer) and input hardware (e.g keyboard and mouse). If the personal cloud allows for automatic updating of data in a folder in the cloud when the same folder is updated in the NAS drive, then the folders are described as being synced and the automatic updating process is called syncing.