In a series circuit, the current is constant around the circuit and total resistance is the sum of individual resistances.
Each parallel path in a parallel circuit is called a branch, and each branch has its own current, though all branches have the same voltage.
Electricity providers charge for work done using their electricity, and this is charged as Kilowatt-hours (kWh), which makes it a key unit of energy rating.
Electric shock can cause pain and severe burns if one touches a high-voltage wire. The human body has a resistance value range of 10-50 kΩ. At 9 milliAmpere (mA) for an adult male and 6mA for an adult female, the electric shock causes significant discomfort to cause one to release the live wire.
Planet earth can be used as a conductor. The circuit path where the earth is used to connect the load to the power source is called the earth return.
When EMF is applied to create a current flow, there is an opposing force to this current flow in the conductor. This opposing force is called resistance (R), and its unit of measurement is Ohm (Ω).
Ampere is the number of electrons flowing orderly through a point in a circuit in one second. The number of these electrons are measured as Coulomb. Any material with free electrons that can conduct current is called a conductor.
Any material without free electrons cannot conduct current, and is thus called a non-conductor or insulator.
Each atom has orbital shell(s) depending on the number of electrons, and the further the electron is from the nucleus, the less strongly it is bound to the nucleus. This means that the electron in the outermost orbital shell is least strongly bound to the nucleus as compared to the electron in the innermost orbital shell.
The electron that is tightly bound to the nucleus is called the valence or bound electron, while the loosely bound electron in the outermost orbit that can move away from the nucleus is called the free electron. To move this free electron, there is need for an energy input to overcome the resistance of the nucleus to allow for this electron to exit its orbital shell. This energy is best described as the electron-moving force.
The only particle that moves when an electric circuit is completed is the electron.
In the atom, there are 3 fundamental particles – proton, electron, and neutron. The proton and neutron give the atom its mass.
The proton and electron are collectively designated as electrical particles because each is surrounded by an invisible field of force that reacts with adjacent matter in either an electrically negative or positive manner. This field gives the particle its characteristic electrical charge. This invisible field of force around the electrical particle is called the electrostatic field.