COVID-19 – From Recognition of SARS-CoV-2 to Understanding the Lifecycle of the Virus

Coronaviruses that belong to the alphacoronavirus and beta-coronavirus genera infect mammals such as humans, bats, and pangolins. In fact, it is the NL63 and 229E strains of alphacoronavirus that cause croup and common cold in humans. However, unlike alphacoronavirus that causes non-lethal infection, beta-coronavirus causes lethal respiratory infections, and the coronavirus strains responsible for SARS and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) belong to the beta-coronavirus genus.

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Offensive Realism and Foreign Policy

State behavior is influenced by the need to optimize its core power so as to leverage its strategic weaknesses, and thus guarantee its existence and survival in an anarchical international system. Thus, military and diplomatic powers need to be combined with astute foreign policy goals so as to ensure that the vital interests of a nation-state are protected. Offensive realism supports formulation of practical, cost-effective, and stable foreign policies that safeguard the survival and prosperity of nation-states in the 21st century international system. Nonetheless, this theory suffers from shortcomings which define its non-applicability in specific situations. These shortcomings include its restrictive nature and omission of domestic politics from analysis. Even so, offensive realism is an appropriate foreign policy strategy for this century; and its applicability must extend to all aspects of foreign policy that relate to international politics, international diplomacy, international security, and strategic affairs.

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